E-inclusion versus digital divide – a challenge for Romanian educational system within the context of CORONAVIRUS pandemic growth


  • alexandrina mihaela popescu UNIVERSITY OF CRAIOVA
Keywords: e-inclusion; digital divide; digital /virtual inclusive learning environment; information communication technologies (ICT); open educational resources


The educational system in Romania cannot keep pace with education and technology. Technologies are omnipresent in human networking but they are not operated similarly in the training and educational systems. Although teachers admit the importance and necessity of new technologies in the educational process, these means are barely used in the teaching-learning activities. More often than not, teachers turn to digital means in order to search and prepare information materials and not as educational resources to be exploited in the classroom. In order to benefit from a flexible and open learning system, ICT potential must be fully exploited thus improving professional training and educational systems and facilitating their adaptation to the digital world. The aim of these provisions is to improve education efficiently through promoting personalized learning which is more beneficial and more efficient. Pedagogical integration of open educational resources is a priviledged modality to create a digital inclusive educational environment, whose potential can be exploited in the interest of learners and for diminishing the negative effects of digital divide. The quick pace of growth of Coronavirus pandemic worldwide during the period December 2019 – March 2020, generated complex effects on the educational level, too. Educational factors (teachers, pupils, students, parents, non-formal education agents etc.) faced the prospect to discover another educational universe, unknown for some of them. The digital /virtual educational environment became and was legally defined as the only educational environment for the entire Romanian educational system for an indefinite period of time.


Agenda digitala pentru Europa, https://ec.europa.eu/digital-singlemarket/

en/policies/shaping-digital-single-market, accessed at 25.04.2020.

Agenda digitala pentru Romania 2020, https://www.comunicatii.gov.ro/agendadigitala-

pentru-romania-2020/, accessed at 25.04.2020.

Gherguț, Alois (2013). Sinteze de psihopedagogie educațională, 3rd edition, Iași:


Ham, Seung-Hwan; Cha, Yun-Kyung (2009). Positioning Education in the

Information Society: The Transnational Diffusion of the Information and

Communication Technology Curriculum. In: Comparative Education Review, vol.

, 4, https://www.journals.uchicago.edu/

OECD (2001). Understanding the digital divide, http://www.oecd.


Raport referitor la educația în era digitală: dificultăți, șanse și învățăminte

pentru elaborarea politicilor UE,


accessed at 25.04.2020.

Raportul UNESCO, https://www.cnbc.com/2020/03/05/almost-300-millionkids-


html?&qsearchterm=coronavirus, accessed at 15.04.2020.

Ștefănescu, Doru (2013). Accesul la Internet pentru educație. Ce înseamnă Internet

de mare viteză în școli?, http://www.elearning.ro/accesul-la-internet-pentrueducatie-

ce-inseamna-internet-de-mare-viteza-in-scoli, accessed at 25.04.2020.

Zhong, Raymond (2020). The Coronavirus Exposes Education’s Digital

Divide, Articol in The New York Times, disponibil la


accessed at 25.04.2020.

Petrică, Cărtărescu, Ioana (2015). Diviziunea digitală în România – analiză

de documente strategice la nivel naţional şi european. In: Revista Calitatea vieții,

XXVI, 3, 289–304, https://www.revistacalitateavietii.ro/2015/CV-3-2015/21.pdf.