• Ardelean Viorel Petru “Aurel Vlaicu” University of Arad
  • Pierre Joseph de Hillerrin 2University of Piteºti
  • Radu Bidiugan 3National Institute for Sport Research


Introduction: Martial arts are practiced both as a hobby, for physical
and psychological training, as well as professional sport with
its own rules and competitions. How is performed every move in
karate is highly important. In this article we analyze some movement
in kata exercises. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate
the existence of stable aspects of movement - motion invariant during
the execution of technical elements of kata. Our application was
made on the kata Heian Nidan. Working methodology consisted in
achieving some tests relating to kinematic characteristic of motion,
in the kata mentioned before. We use an inertial navigation system
that contains 17 sensors - MVNBiomech, produced by Dutch company
XSENS Technologies BV. Female athlete tested holds a black
belt, she practice karate for 8 years and have 22 years old. The
results obtained refers to the oscillation of CGM height, on a total
of 12 repetitions from kata sequence selected. The average values
of height oscillation to CGM = max. 92 cm and min. 72 cm., St. dev.
is Min. = 0.002 and Max.= 0,013 while C.V. = max. 1.7%.
Conclusions drawn from the above results indicate that the average
values are representative and homogeneity is high. Thus we can say
that the invariants (general form of repetitive motion), can be recognized
in the development of technical elements of martial arts
kata exercises (and we can say in other sports). This emphasis of
movement patterns can be useful both referees and coaches
involved in the educational process.


Chandler R.C., (1998), Shotokan karate: Funakoshi’s

karate-do, from shotokan. htm (accesat: 05.09.2014);

Chapman A. E., (2008), Biomechanical analysis of fundamental

human movements, Human Kinetics, Champaign, IL;

Dragomirescu L., Drane J. W., (2009), Biostatistics for

beginners, Vol I, Biostatisticã descriptivã, Editia a 6° revãzutã,

Editura CREDIS, Bucuresti;

Galea I., Ardelean V., Istvan G., (2010), Scientific Research

Methodology in Physical Education and Sport: synthesis and

applications, Editura Universitãtii Aurel Vlaicu, Arad;

Lee Bruce, (1992), Tao of jet kune do, Ohara Publications

Inc., California;

Murãriþa I., (2009), Economic Statistics, Editura

Universitaria, Craiova;

Sbenghe T., (2008), Kinesiology:The Science of Movement,

Editura medicalã, Bucuresti;

Tokitsu K., (2010), The katas: the meaning behind the

movements, Inner traditions international, Vermont;

Wu G., Helmb van der F.C.T., Veeger H.E.J., et all, (2005),

ISB recommendation on definitions of joint coordinate systems of

various joints for the reporting of human joint motion—Part II:

shoulder, elbow, wrist and hand, Journal of Biomechanics 38

(2005) 981–992, doi:10.1016/j.jbiomech.2004.05.042;

W.K.F. , 2013, Kata and kumite competition Regulation,

version 8.0, World Karate Federation;

XSENS Technologies B.V., (2012), Moven User Manual,

Xsens document MV0319P, Revision F, July, Enschede;

12. invarianta (23.02.2012)