Exercise Interventions on Balance in Older People: a Systematic Review

  • Vânia Azevedo Ferreira Brandão Loureiro Portugal
  • Carlos Paixão Polytechnic Institute of Beja, Beja, Portugal
  • Estefania Castillo-Viera University of Huelva, Huelva, Spain
Keywords: exercise program; physical activity; balance; elderly

Abstract

Introduction: Age-related changes in the sensorimotor and neuromuscular
system negatively affect performance in static and dynamic postural control
even in healthy older adults, leading to deficits in balance and gait performance
with negatively impact on the functional ability of the older person.
Regular exercise can elicit many favourable responses that contribute to balance
improvement. Objectives: The objective of this systematic review is to
present evidence for effectiveness of exercise interventions designed to improve
balance in healthy older people. Methods: The studies were identified
from four databases (PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library and Sportdiscus)
from January 2011 to January 2020. A total of 17 articles meet the
inclusion criteria. Results: Statistically significant effects were reported for
static and dynamic balance, translated into several balance abilities improve-ments. The most used type of exercise was the gait, balance and functional
training, followed by the strength/resistance training. There is a lack of consensus
regarding to balance programs methodology. Conclusion: Exercise
appears to have beneficial effects on balance ability. We considered fundamental
that the studies should include the specifications of the intervention
program regarding to intensity control, exercises performed, guidelines used
in the balance exercises and the exercise progression and variation during
training. This information will help instructors to provided validated routine
exercises.

Author Biographies

Vânia Azevedo Ferreira Brandão Loureiro, Portugal

Department of Arts, Humanities and Sports, School of Education,
Polytechnic Institute of Beja
 Physical Activity and Health Laboratory, Polytechnic Institute of Beja
 Faculty of Medicine/ ISAMB, Research Centre supported by FCT

Carlos Paixão, Polytechnic Institute of Beja, Beja, Portugal

Physical Activity and Health Laboratory

Estefania Castillo-Viera, University of Huelva, Huelva, Spain

Faculty of Education, Psychology and Sport Sciences

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Published
2021-04-23