An Explorative Literature Review of The Influence of Physical Exercises on Bone Mineral Density

  • Holubiac Iulian Ștefan


Introduction: With age, bone mineral density decreases, and as a result the
risk of fracture increases. It is known that practicing physical exercises helps
maintain or increase bone mineral density in both men and women. ����������Fractures
resulting from osteoporosis become increasingly common in women after age
55 years, resulting in substantial bone-associated morbidities, and increased
mortality and health-care costs. Physical exercises stimulates the bone and
it adapts to the applied mechanical forces, stimulating the obsteoblast and
inhibiting osteoclast formation and activity. Purpose: The purpose of this
study is to highlight the benefits of physical exercise on bone cells and bone
mineral density, respectively. Methods: We searched Science Direct, Springer
Link, Web of Science and PubMed for articles and reviews in the English
language pusblished between 2000 and 2020, although older references were
also used when appropriate. The following terms were used to give as broad
range of studies as possible: ,,osteoporosis”, ,,bone density”, ,,bone mass”,
,,physical exercise”, ,,strength training”, ,,osteoblast”, ,,osteoclast”, ,,bone
physiology”. Results: We limited the search to the following study designs:
controlled clinical trials, guidelines, meta-analyses, systematic reviews
and randomised controlled trials. Of all the articles found, we selected 98 scientific articles from which we selected the most conclusive information.
Conclusion: In conclusion, we recommend practicing physical exercises
from childhood, since numerous studies carried out in young, adults and in
the elderly demonstrate the beneficial effects of physical exercise on bone
cells, especially on osteoblasts.

Author Biography

Holubiac Iulian Ștefan

,,Ștefan cel Mare” Univerisity of Suceava, România
,,Babeș-Bolyai”University of Cluj-Napoca, România